The diverse agro-ecological conditions in the country are favourable for growing nine annual oilseed crops, which include seven edible oilseeds (groundnut, rapeseed & mustard, soybean, sunflower, sesame, safflower and niger) and two non-edible oilseeds (castor and linseed) and several perennial oil bearing tree crops. India is one of the major oilseeds grower and importer of edible oils. India’s vegetable oil economy is world’s fourth largest after USA, China & Brazil. The oilseed accounts for 13% of the Gross Cropped Area, 3% of the Gross National Product and 10% value of all agricultural commodities. This sector has recorded annual growth rate of area, production and yield @ 2.44%, 5.47% and 2.96% respectively during last decade (1999-2009). These oilseed crops are widely distributed in various agro-ecological niches of the country. Researchers, developmental agencies, policy makers and industries are making concerted efforts to increase oilseed production in the country.